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The Islamic (Hijri) Year and Months: Muharram & Safar

The Hijrah New Year

10 Muharram ('Ashura) is a day of Importance
The Messenger of Allah (S) Said 'The best of fasting after Ramadan is fasting Allah's month of Muharram.' - (Reported by Muslim)

The Prophet Muhammad (Salla-Allaahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) was asked about fasting on the Day of Ashura (10th of Muharram). He answered: “It atones for the sins of the preceding year.(Reported by Muslim)

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'Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year), so it was ordained by Allah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them, four are sacred. That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein.' - [TM Qur'an al-Tawbah 9:36]

The Islamic (Hijri) year consists of twelve (purely lunar) months.

(1) Muharram
(2) Safar
(3) Rabi al-awwal
(4) Rabi al-Thani
(5) Jumada al-awwal
(6) Jumada al-Thani
(7) Rajab
(8) Sha`ban
(9) Ramadan
(10) Shawwal
(11) Dhul Qa'dah
(12) Dhul Hijjah

Muharram

Muharram is so called because it is a sacred (Muharram) month and to confirm its sanctity.

Fasting During Muharram

Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: ‘The best of fasting after Ramadan is fasting Allaah’s month of Muharram.” - (Reported By Muslim)

Abu Hurairah reported: "I asked the Prophet: 'Which prayer is the best after the obligatory prayers?' He said: 'Prayer during the middle of the night.' I asked: 'Which fast is the best after the fast of Ramadan?' He said, 'The month of Allah that you call Muharram.' " This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawud  Fiqh Us-Sunnah, By  Sayyid Sabiq Vol 3

Fasting of Ashura (10th of Muharram)

It is established through a number of authentic ahadith that fasting on the day of 'Ashura' is Sunnah of the Holy Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, and makes one entitled to a great reward see Awareness and Apprehension: Al-Mundhiri's At-Targhib Wat Tarhib, Fiqh Us-Sunnah, Act of Worship By Sayyid Sabiq.

According to another Hadith, it is more advisable that the fast of 'Ashura' should either be preceded or followed by another fast. It means that one should fast two days: the 9th and 10th of Muharram or the 10th and 11th.

Being Generous

Some traditions mention another feature of the day of 'Ashura. According to these traditions, one should be more generous to his family by providing more food to them on this day as compared to other days. These traditions are not very authentic according to the science of Hadith. Yet, some Scholars like Baihaqi and Ibn Hibban have accepted them as reliable see  Awareness and Apprehension, Al-Mundhiri's At-Targhib Wat Tarhib

See Article : The Month of Muharram By Mufti Taqi Usmani

Safar

The  second month of the Islamic calendar.

The origin of this word has few theories:

The first says that when the pagan Arabs went on their looting expeditions they would leave their houses empty or ‘sifr’ meaning void.
The second theory says that the word is derived form the Arabic word for yellow called ‘sufr’: as when it was first named it fell in the time of autumn, hence the derivation the word yellow as all the leaves at that time turned yellow.

It is also said this word means 'whistling of the wind". When this name was assigned to this month, it was probably a windy time of the year. As mentioned earlier, most of the months were named according to weather conditions at the time. However, since they are based on the moon, the months shift about 11 days every year. So, the seasons do not necessarily correspond to the name of the month any more.

Misconception:

To believe that the month of Safar is inauspicious, and particularly to believe that its first thirteen days are 'bad luck' or that it is harmful to marry or propose to marry or undertake a journey, etc., during these days are beliefs which are against the teachings of Islam.

In pre-Islamic days people considered the month of Safar to be evil and ominous. Our Rasul (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) strongly rejected such beliefs and ideas. The truth is that no time, day, month or date is in itself evil, but the deeds of people are either good or bad. The time spent in the performance of good deeds will be auspicious and the time spent in sin and the disobedience of Allah Ta'la will be evil and ominous.

Hadhrat Jaabir (R.A.) has said that, "I have heard the Prophet (S)  saying, the descending of illness and evil superstition befalling in the month of Safar is untrue." - (Muslim)

Significant events during the Month of Safar

  • The Start of the Hijra from Makkah to Madinah was in Safar in the 13th Year of Prophethood.
  • The Prophet (S) went on the military campaign of al-Abwaa’, also known as Waddaan. This was the first military campaign in which he took part himself. It happened in Safar, twelve months after the Hijrah. The banner, which was white, was carried by Hamzah ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib. He appointed Sa’d ibn ‘Ubaadah in charge of Madinah (in his absence), and he went out with the Muhaajireen only, to intercept a caravan of Quraysh, but there was no fighting.
  • The Prophet (S) Conquered Khaybar in Safar in the Year 7 Hijri
  • In the same month of Safar, in 4 AH, there was the battle of Bi’r Ma’oonah (the well of Ma’oonah)
  • Towards the End of Safar of 11th Year Hijri the Prophet (S) Ordered the last military army - Start of Usamah's Army
  • Beginning of the Prophet's fatal disease.

It is also said that  the following events also Happened in Safar

  • Hadhrat Ali (RA) married Prophet (S) daughter Hadhrat Fatima (R.A.) in the latter days of Safar 2 A.H.
  • Khubaib Ibn Adey (R.A.) was martyred in Safar in the year 4 A.H. in Makkah.
  • Zaid Ibn Dathina (RA) was martyred in this month in the year 4 A.H. in Makkah.
  • Khalid and 'Amr bin al-'As Accept Islam in Safar  8 Hijri
  • The Prophet (S) Completion of Marriage to Umm Habibah (ra)
  • The Death of As-Sultan Salah-ud-Din al-Ayyubi, may Allah raise his rank died on Wednesday the 27th of Safar, year 589 H.

          
The Hijri dates Above Are in Accordance with The Dates in Makkah and Madinah, some people are in the habit of slandering the Islamic Dates In Saudi Arabia.
The Saudi Regime may be corrupt, Oppressive and Puppets of the West.
Everyone is entitled to their opinion but please refrain from slandering the Hijri Dates in Hijaz, after all the Holy Prophet (Sallalahu Alayhi Wasalam), The Sahabah and Awliyah in History (both Living and Dead) are present in these blessed lands.

Surely Almighty Allah is with these blessed souls

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The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) quoted Allah as saying: "My love is obliged to those who love each other for My sake, who sit with each other for My sake, who visit each other for My sake, and who give to each other generously for My sake."  Al-Muwattah, Volume 51, Hadith 15