Fiqh 2.105 - 2.154
Fiqh 2.105: Different ways of offering salatul Khauf:
-1- If the enemy is not in the direction of the qiblah, then the imam should lead a group in the performance of one rak'ah after which he should wait until they complete the second rak'ah by themselves, and then, they should go and face the enemy. And the second group should come and the imam would lead them in salah while he is performing his second rak'ah. He should again wait for them to complete another rak'ah by themselves before leading them in the salutations.
Saleh ibn Khawat relates from Saleh ibn Abu Khaithimah that a group lined up with the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam while another group faced the enemy. He prayed one rak'ah with the group that was with him and remained standing while they finished the salah and left and faced the enemy. The second group came and prayed the remaining rak'ah with him, then he stayed sitting until they had completed their prayers individually, after which he led them in making the taslim. This is related by the group, except for Ibn Majah.
-2- If the enemy is not in the direction of the qiblah, then, the imam prays one rak'ah with one group of the army while the other group faces the enemy, after which the two groups exchange places, and the imam prays one rak'ah with the second group. The members of each group will complete one rak'ah of their prayers on their own.
Ibn 'Umar says: "The Messenger of Allah prayed one rak'ah with one group while the other group faced the enemy, [At that point, those who had prayed] took the place of their companions facing the enemy and the second group came and prayed one rak'ah with the Prophet and then he made the taslim. Then each group made (the remaining) one rak'ah." This is related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, and Ahmad. It is apparent that the second group completed their salah after the imam made the taslim without discontinuing their salah (i.e., for them, it was two continuous rak'at), and the first group did not complete their salah until the second group had completed their salah and went back to face the enemy. Ibn Mas'ud says: "Then, he made the taslim and they stood up to finish the second rak'ah individually and, then they made their taslim."
-3- The imam prays two rak'at with each group, the first two rak'at being his fard salah and the latter two being nafl. It is allowed for one who is making a nafl to lead others in salah who are praying fard. Jabir reports that the Prophet prayed two rak'at with one group of his companions and then another two rak'at with another group and then he made the taslim. This is related by ash-Shaf'i and an-Nasa'i.
Abu Dawud, Ahmad, and an-Nasa'i record that he said: "The Prophet prayed the salatul Khauf with us, and he prayed two rak'at with some of his companions, and then the others came and took their places and he prayed two rak'at with them, and he made the taslim. So, the Prophet prayed four rak'at and the people prayed two rak'at each."
Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim record that he said: "We were with the Prophet during the campaign of Zhat al-Riqa and the salah was made, and he prayed two rak'at with one group and then they withdrew, and he led the other group in two rak'at. The Prophet prayed four rak'at and the people prayed two rak'at."
-4- If the enemy is in the direction of the qiblah, then the imam leads both of the groups in salah at the same time and they share in guarding against the enemy, and they follow the imam in every one of his actions until he performs sajdah, in which case one group will make the sajdah with him and the other will wait until they are finished and then perform their own sujjud. After the first rak'ah is finished, the people in front will move to the back and those in the back will move to the front.
Jabir said: "I prayed salatul khauf (fear prayer) with the Prophet. He arranged us in two rows behind him. The enemy was between us and the qiblah. The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam made the takbir and we all made the takbir. He performed the ruku' and we all made the ruku'. Then, he raised his head from the ruku' and we all raised our heads from the ruku'. Next he went down for sajdah as well as the row closest to him, while the back row stood facing the enemy until the Prophet and the first row had completed their prostrations, after which the back row made sajdah and then stood [after completing their sajjud]. Following this, those in the back row moved to the front while those in the front row moved to the back. The Prophet performed the ruku' and we all made ruku'. Then, he raised his head and we raised our heads from ruku. Afterward, he made the sajdah and the row that was previously in the back during the first rak'ah prostrated with him while the [new] back row stood facing the enemy. When the Prophet and the [new] front row had completed their sujjud, the [new] back row made the sujjud. Finally, the Prophet made the taslim and we all made the taslim. This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, and al-Baihaqi.
-5- Both of the groups begin the prayer with the imam, and then one group would guard against the enemy while the other group would pray one rak'ah with the imam, after which they would face the enemy while the other group would come and pray one rak'ah by themselves (individually) while the imam is standing. Then, they would join him in what is the imam's and their second rak'ah. At that point, the group which had gone to face the enemy would come and pray one rak'ah (their second) individually while the others would be sitting (in salah waiting for them to sit in their second rak'ah), after which the imam would make the taslim and both groups would make the taslim together [behind the imam].
Abu Huraira reports: "I prayed salatul khauf with the Messenger of Allah during the year of the Battle of Najd. He stood to pray 'asr and one group stood with him while the other group was faced the enemy with their backs toward the qiblah. When he made the takbir, all the people made the takbir- that is, those with him and those facing the enemy. Then, he performed one rak'ah and the group with him also performed their ruku' and sujjud with him while the others were still facing the enemy. Next, the group which was with the Prophet went to face the enemy while the other group came and prayed one rak'ah and the Prophet kept standing [in prayer] as he was. Then, he performed the ruku' and the new group performed the ruku' with him and he performed the sajdah and they performed the sajdah with him. After this, the group which had gone to face the enemy came and prayed one rak'ah while the Prophet and those with him were sitting [in prayer]. Finally, the Prophet made taslim and both groups made the taslim with him. The Prophet prayed two rak'at and both groups prayed two rak'at." This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and an-Nasa' i .
-6- Each group prays only one rak'ah with the imam and the imam prays a total of two rak'at whereas each group prays one. Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Prophet prayed at Zhi-qard, and he arranged the people into two rows, one row behind him and one row guarding against the enemy. The group behind him prayed one rak'ah (with him) and then left the place to the other group. The other group then came and prayed one rak'ah (with the Prophet), and [neither group] made up a rak'ah. This is related by anNasa'i and Ibn Hibban. Ibn 'Abbas also says: "Allah made the prayer obligatory on your Prophet [in the following manner]: four rak'at while resident, two while traveling, and only one during times of fear." This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, Abu Dawud, and an-Nasa'i.
Fiqh 2.108: How to pray maghrib during times of fear
The sunset prayer is not to be shortened and there is no hadith which states how it is to be prayed during times of fear. Therefore, the scholars differ over how it is to be performed. The Hanafi and Maliki schools say that the imam is to pray two rak'at with the first group and then one rak'ah with the second group. Ash-Shaf'i and Ahmad say it is permissible for the imam to pray one rak'ah with the first group and then two rak'at with the second group as it has been related that 'Ali performed it in that manner.
Fiqh 2.108 a: Prayer during times of extreme fear
If the fear [of the enemy] is great or fighting is taking place, each person is to pray individually to the best of his ability - that is, standing or riding, facing the qiblah or not facing the qiblah, making gestures for the ruku' and sajjud- whatever he can do. He should make the gesture for his sajjud lower than that for his ruku'. He is excused from any of the acts of salah which he is unable to perform.
Ibn 'Umar relates: "The Prophet described salatul khauf and said: 'If the danger is greater than that, then [pray] standing or riding."'
In Sahih al-Bukhari, the wording is: "If the danger is greater than that, then pray while standing on your feet or riding, facing the qiblah or not facing the qiblah." In Muslim's version, Ibn 'Umar is reported to have said: "If the danger is greater than that, then pray standing or riding and by making gestures."
Fiqh 2.108 b: The prayer of attacker or the attacked
If one is attacking the enemy and fears that he will miss the time of salah, he may pray by making gestures even if he is moving in a direction other than that of the qiblah. The case of the one who is being attacked is the same as the one who is attacking. The same is the case for anyone whose enemy prevents him from making the ruku' or the sajdah or a person who fears for himself or his family or his wealth from an enemy or a thief or a wild animal; in all such cases, the person may [if necessary] pray by making gestures and facing any direction. Al-'Iraqi writes: "The same applies to anyone who is fleeing from a flood or fire and has no other option open to him. The same is true for one who is in straitened conditions and is in debt and cannot pay it and he fears that his debtor might catch him and imprison him while not believing his claim. This applies also to one who fears a punishment of qisas and hopes that by his absence the prosecuting party's anger will abate and they will forgive him."
'Abdullah ibn Unais reports: "The Messenger of Allah sent me to Khalid ibn Sufyan al-Hazhili, who was close to 'Arafat, and said: 'Go and kill him.' I saw him and the time of the afternoon prayer came and I said [to myself]: 'I fear that something between him and me will cause me to delay the salah, so I left walking and offered the salah by making gestures. When I came close to him, he said to me: 'Who are you?' I said: 'A man from among the Arabs. It has reached me that you are gathering the people against this man [i.e, the Prophet] so I came to you for that reason.' He said: 'I am doing that.' I walked with him for a while until I could strike him dead with my sword." This is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud. AlHafiz says its chain is hasan.
Fiqh 2.109: The prayer of a traveler, shortening the prayers that consist of four rak'at
Allah says in the Qur'an: "And when you go forth in the land there is no sin upon you, if you shorten your prayer when you fear the disbelievers may attack you." This concession is not limited to situations of danger.
Ya'la ibn Umaiyyah said: "I said to 'Umar ibn al-Khattab: 'Explain to me why the people shorten the salah when Allah says, 'And when you go forth...[the preceding verse] and those days are gone now!' 'Umar said: 'I wondered about that too and I mentioned that to the Prophet and he said: "This is a charity that Allah, the Exalted, has bestowed upon you, so accept His charity.'" This is related by the group.
At-Tabari records that Abu Munib al-Jarshi mentioned this verse to Ibn 'Umar and said: "We are safe now and are not in fear, should we, then, shorten the salah'?" He answered him: "You have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct)."
The issue was also referred to 'Aishah and she said: "The salah was made fard in Makkah in sets of two rak'at. When the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam came to Medinah, two rak'at were added to each salah except the maghrib salah because it is the witr of the daytime, and the dawn prayer due to its lengthy Qur'anic recital. But if one travels, he performs the original prayer [i.e., only two rak'at]." This is related by Ahmad, alBaihaqi, Ibn Hibban, and Ibn Khuzaimah. Its narrators are trustworthy.
Ibn al-Qayyim says: "The Prophet would pray only two rak'at for those prayers which consisted of four, whenever he traveled until he returned to Medinah. And it is not confirmed that he ever prayed four rak'at [while traveling], and none of the imams differ on this point, although they do differ about the ruling of shortening the salah."
'Umar, 'Ali, Ibn Mas'ud, ibn 'Abbas, ibn 'Umar, Jabir and the Hanafi scholars say that it is fard. The Maliki school holds that it is sunnah mu'akadah (the stressed one); it is even more emphasized than the congregational salah. If the traveler cannot find another traveler to lead him in the salah, he may pray by himself as it is disliked that he should follow one who is a resident [i.e., and pray four rak'at] according to the Maliki school. The Hanbali school holds that it is preferred for the person to shorten the prayer rather than to pray the complete salah. The Shaf'i school has a similar opinion, if the person has traveled a sufficient distance.
Fiqh 2.110: The distance one must travel before shortening one's prayer
The conclusion from the Qur'anic verse is that any traveling, be it long or short, which falls within the linguistic definition of the word "travel" would suffice to shorten one's salah, to combine them and to break the fast. There is nothing in the sunnah which confines this general term to any particular meaning. Ibn al-Munzhir and others have mentioned more than twenty reports on this point. Here we shall mention some of the more important reports.
Ahmad, Muslim, Abu Dawud, and al-Baihaqi record that Yahya ibn Yazid said: "I asked Anas ibn Malik about shortening the prayer, and he said: 'The Messenger of Allah would pray two rak'at if he had traveled a distance of three miles or farsakh."' Ibn Hajar writes in Fath al-Bari: "This is the most authentic hadith which states and clarifies [that question]." The conflict between mile and farsakh is made clear in Abu Sa'id al-Khudri's statement: "If the Prophet traveled a distance of one farsakh, he would shorten his prayer." This was related by Sa'id ibn Mansur in his Sunan and by al-Hafiz ibn Hajar in at-Talkhis, and he implicitly accepted it by not making any further comments about it. It is well-known that a farsakh equals three miles and, therefore, Abu Sa'id's hadith removes the confusion which arises from Anas' hadith when he says that the shortest distance, due to which the Prophet shortened his prayer, was three miles. One farsakh is equivalent to 5,541 meters while one mile equals 1,748 meters. The shortest distance which has been mentioned with respect to the shortening of salah is one mile. This was recorded by Ibn abi Shaibah, with a sahih chain, on the authority of Ibn 'Umar. Ibn Hazm follows this report, and argues that if the distance is less than one mile, one is not to shorten the salah, the Messenger of Allah went to the graveyard of al-Baqi' to bury the dead and (similarly) he went off to answer the call of nature and did not shorten his salah.
Concerning what some jurists say, namely, that the journey must be at least two days long or as some say three days, Imam Abu al-Qasim alKharqi's refutation of their opinion is sufficient for us. In al-Mughni he says: 'I do not find any proof for what those scholars say. The statements of the (sahabah) companions are contradictory, and they are not a (conclusive) proof if they differ. Something has been related from Ibn 'Umar and Ibn 'Abbas which differs from what these scholars use as proof. Even if that were not the case, their statements do not constitute a proof when a statement or action of the Prophet himself exists. Even if their statements were accepted, we would not be able to follow the distance they mentioned due to the following two reasons. One, they differ from the sunnah that has been related from the Prophet and from the clear meaning of the Qur'an, as the clear meaning of the verse allows one to shorten one's salah if one makes any journey upon the earth. Allah says: "If you journey on the earth, there is no blame upon you if you shorten your prayer." The condition of there being fear has been deleted as can be seen in the hadith we recorded from Ya'la ibn Umayyah, and what remains is the clear meaning of the verse which covers every type of journey. The Prophet said: "The traveler may wipe over his socks for a period of three days." This shows the length of time that one may wipe over the socks and it cannot be used as a proof for the question we are discussing here. One could argue that traveling is less than a three-day journey on the basis of the hadith: "It is not allowed for any woman who believes in Allah and the last day to travel a journey of one day, save in the presence of a male relative." Two, the question of the distance to be traveled is one that may only be answered by some sort of revelation from Allah, the Exalted [the Qur' an or Sunnah]; it is not the type of issue which one may address on the basis of personal reasoning, nor is there any way to derive an analogy. The proofs which exist support the opinion that shortening the salah is permissible for every traveler, unless there is some consensus to the contrary."
Similar to that is the traveling by planes, trains, and so forth, or a trip that is in obedience to Allah, the Exalted, or otherwise. If there is someone whose occupation requires him to always be traveling, for instance, a pilot, a ship captain, truck driver, and so on, then he is permitted to shorten his salah or break his fast as he is truly traveling.
Fiqh 2.111: Whence one may shorten one's salah
The majority of the scholars are of the opinion that it is permissible to shorten one's salah when one leaves one's residence and is outside of one's city, and that is a condition, and he is not to resume his regular salah until he reaches the first houses of his city.
Ibn al-Munzhir says: "I do not know of the Prophet shortening his salah during any of his travels until after he had left Medinah."
Anas relates: "I prayed four rak'at at Zhul-Halifah." This is related by the group. Some of the early scholars say that if one makes the intention to travel, he may shorten his salah even if he is in his house.
Fiqh 2.112: When the traveler is to pray the complete salah
A traveler may shorten his salah as long as he is on a journey. Likewise if he stays in some place for business or some other affair, then he may shorten his salah as long as he is there, even for years. If the person intends to stay in a place for a certain amount of time then, according to Ibn al-Qayyim, he remains a traveler, regardless of whether he plans to stay there for a long or short time, as long as he does not plan to stay [i.e., reside and not return] in the place that he has traveled to. The scholars differ on this point. Summing up and giving his own opinion, Ibn al-Qayyim says: "The Messenger of Allah stayed in Tabuk for twenty days and during that time he shortened his salah and he did not say that one may not shorten his salah if he stays longer than that, although there is agreement that he did stay there for that period of time."
In Sahih al-Bukhari, it is recorded that Ibn 'Abbas said: "The Prophet stayed, during some of his journeys, for nineteen day and he prayed only two rak'at. If we stayed in a place for nineteen days, we would not pray the complete salah. However, if we stayed longer than that, we would perform the whole salah." Ahmad states that ibn 'Abbas was referring to the Prophet's stay in Makkah at the time of its conquest when he said: "The Messenger of Allah stayed in Makkah for eighteen days during the time of the conquest as he had to go to Hunain and was not planning to stay there." This is his interpretation of Ibn 'Abbas' statement. Others say that Ibn 'Abbas was referring to the Prophet's stay in Tabuk as Jabir ibn 'Abdullah said: "The Messenger of Allah stayed in Tabuk for twenty days and performed qasr salah." Imam Ahmad related this in his Musnad. Al-Miswar ibn Makhramah reports: "We stayed with Sa'd in some of the cities of ash-Sham [Syria] for forty days, and Sa'd would perform qasr while we would offer the whole salah." Naf'i relates: "Ibn 'Umar was in Azerbaijan for six months, as there was snow blocking the pass, and he would pray two rak'at." Hafs ibn 'Ubaidullah says: "Anas ibn Malik stayed in ash-Sham for two years and he prayed the salah of a traveler." Anas relates: "The companions of the Prophet stayed in Ram Hurmuz for seven months and they shortened their salah." Al-Hassan reports: "I stayed with 'Abdurrahman ibn Samurah for two years in Kabul, and he shortened his salah but he did not combine the salah." Ibrahim says: "We resided in Rai for a year or more and in Sijistan for two years . . . [and we prayed qasr]. This is the guidance of the Prophet and his companions, and this is the correct position.
Concerning other opinions which people follow Imam Ahmad say: "If a person intends to stay for four days, he has to offer the whole salah and he may offer qasr if his intention is for less than that. This is based on an interpretation of the reports from the Prophet and his companions [i.e., they never intended to stay for longer than that and would always say: 'We will leave tomorrow,' and so on]. This interpretation is obviously suspect. The Prophet conquered Makkah and stayed there to establish Islam, eradicate polytheism, and to guide the Arabs. It definitely goes, without saying, that such an objective does take more than a day or two to complete. Similarly, his stay in Tabuk was in preparation for the impending war and he knew that this might take longer than just four days. In the same way, Ibn 'Umar's stay in Azerbaijan for six months, and his praying qasr during the entire time was with the knowledge that it takes more than two or three days for such snow to melt and the pass to become traversable. The same is the case with Anas' stay of two years in ash-Sham and his praying qasr and the companions' stay in Ram Hurmuz for seven months while shortening their prayers. It is well known that activities like theirs, such as jihad and guarding, took more than four days." The followers of Ahmad maintain: "If one is staying in a place for the purpose of jihad or due to imprisonment or sickness, then one may shorten one's salah regardless of whether the person thinks that such a situation may last for a short time or a long time." This is correct but there is no proof that such conditions have been stipulated in the Qur'an, Sunnah, ijma' (consensus), or practice of the Prophet's companions. They argued that such conditions are based on what is needed for the person to fulfill his need while remaining a traveler, and that is what is less than four days. His response to them was: 'From where do you derive those conditions, while the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam stayed for more than four days, shortening his salah, in Makkah and Tabuk, and he did not mention to anyone anything about it and he never told them that he never intended to stay for more than four days, even though he knew that the people would [strictly] follow his actions concerning the salah. They surely followed him in his shortening of the salah, and he did not object to their praying qasr if they were to stay for more than four nights. This should be made clear as it is very important. Similarly, the companions (as-sahabah) followed him in that and he did not say anything [in objection] to those who prayed with him."
Malik and ash-Shaf'i say: "If one intends to stay for more than four days, he should perform the whole salah, and if he intends to stay for less than that, he is to offer qasr."
Abu Hanifah holds: "If one intends to stay for fifteen days, he should do the qasr. If he intends to stay for less than that, he should not shorten the salah." This is also the opinion of al-Laith ibn Sa'd, and it has also been related from three companions: 'Umar, ibn 'Umar, and Ibn 'Abbas.
Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab is of the opinion that: "If you stay for four days, you pray four rak'at." A statement similar to that of Abu Hanifah's has also been related from him. 'Ali ibn Abi Talib says that if one stays for ten days, he is to perform the whole salah, and the same has been related from Ibn ' Abbas .
Al-Hassan says: "One who does not get to his destination or (city of residence) may shorten salah."
'Aishah says: "One who does not put down his provision is to shorten the salah."
The four imams agree that if one has some need to take care of and always has the intention of leaving the next day, then he may shorten his salah for as long as he is in that state. However, according to one statement of ash-Shaf'i, he may do so only for seventeen or eighteen days and he is not to shorten his salah after that time. Ibn al-Munzhir states in his Ishraf: "The people of knowledge are in agreement that a traveler may perform qasr as long as he does not intend to stay in a place, even though he stays there for years."
Fiqh 2.114: Nawafil during travel
The majority of the scholars are of the opinion that it is not disliked to perform nawafil during the state in which one is shortening his salah. On this point, there is no difference between regular sunnah prayers and other nawafl.
Al-Bukhari and Muslim record that the Prophet made the ghusl in the house of Umm Hani on the day of the conquest of Makkah and then he prayed eight rak'at.
Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet prayed while riding in whatever direction he was facing and nodding his head [i.e., for the movements of the salah].
Al-Hassan relates: "The companions of the Prophet while on a journey performed supererogatory prayers before and after the fard salah."
Ibn 'Umar and others are of the opinion that there are no nawafl, before or after the fard salah, except for during the middle of the night. He saw some people praying after the salah and said: "If I were to pray, I would have performed the whole salah [as obviously that would have taken preference]. O nephew, I accompanied the Messenger of Allah [on joumeys] and he never prayed more than two rak'at until Allah took his soul. And I accompanied Abu Bakr and he did not pray more than two rak'at." He also mentioned the name of 'Umar and 'Uthman, then he recited the verse: "Ye have indeed in the messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct)." This is related by al-Bukhari.
Ibn Qudamah combines what al-Hassan and what Ibn 'Umar say by concluding that al-Hassan's report points to the fact that there is no harm in praying nawafil while traveling, whereas Ibn 'Umar's report points to the fact that there is no harm in not praying such nawafil.
Fiqh 2.115: Traveling on a Friday
There is no harm in traveling on a Friday if it is not during the time of the salah.
'Umar heard a man say: "If today was not Friday, I would have left." 'Umar said: "Leave. Friday does not keep one from traveling."
Abu 'Ubaidah traveled on Friday and he did not wait for the salah.
Az-Zuhri wanted to travel before noon on Friday and the people mentioned something to him, and he said: "The Prophet traveled on Friday."
Fiqh 2.115 a: Combining two prayers
It is allowed for a person to combine the zuhr and 'asr salah, either during the time of the earlier or the later salah, or the maghrib and 'isha prayers if he is in one of the following circumstances:
Fiqh 2.115 b: Combining the salah at 'Arafa and al-Muzdalifah
The scholars are in agreement that one is to combine the zuhr and 'asr prayer during the time of the zuhr prayer, at 'Arafa [during the performance of the pilgrimage], and the maghrib and 'isha prayers during the time of the 'isha at muzdalifah, following the example of the Prophet.
Fiqh 2.115 c: Combining the salah during traveling
Most of the people of knowledge are of the opinion that it is permissible to combine two prayers during the time of either one of them while traveling, regardless of whether the person is actually on the road or has stopped at a place for some time.
Mu'azh reports that while the Prophet was at Tabuk and the sun had passed the meridian, the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam combined the zuhr and 'asr prayers before he started his journey. If he started his journey before the sun passed its meridian, he would delay the zuhr prayer until the time when he stoppped for the 'asr prayer. He would do likewise for the maghrib prayer. If the sun set before he began his journey, he would combine the maghrib and 'isha prayers [at that time]. If he began a journey before the sun had set, he would then combine them at the time of 'isha. This is related by Abu Dawud and at-Tirmizhi who call it hasan.
Kuraib reported that Ibn 'Abbas said: "Shall I not inform you of the salah of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam during a journey?" We said: "Certainly." He said: "If the sun passed its meridian while he stopped, he would combine the zuhr and 'asr prayers before remounting [i.e., moving on]. If the sun had not passed its meridian while he had stopped [i.e., before breaking camp], he would travel until the time of the 'asr prayer and then he would combine the zuhr and 'asr prayers. If the sun set while he had stopped, he would combine the magrib and 'isha prayers. If that did not occur while he had stopped, he would ride until the 'isha time and then combine them." This is related by Ahmad.
Ash-Shaf'i has something similar in his Musnad, namely that when he [the Prophet] set out to travel before the sun passed its meridian, he delayed the zuhr prayer and combine it with the 'asr during the time of the 'asr salah. Al-Baihaqi recorded it with a good chain and he says: "To combine the two prayers due to traveling is something that is well-known and was practiced by the companions of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam and those who followed them."
Imam Malik records in al-Muwatta' from Mu'azh that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam delayed his salah one day during the battle of Tabuk and then went and prayed the zuhr and 'asr prayers together. Then he returned and went back again and said the maghrib and 'isha prayers together.
Commenting on this report, ash-Shaf'i says: "His statement, 'then he returned and left again,' only refers to a situation where the Prophet was staying in a certain place [i.e., he was not traveling from one site to another] . "
Ibn Qudamah mentions the preceding hadith and writes in al-Mughni: "Ibn 'Abdul-Barr said: 'That hadith is sahih and its chain is confirmed. The people who are familiar with the life history of the Prophet say that the battle of Tabuk took place in the ninth year of the hijrah. This hadith is a clear proof and the strongest evidence against those who claim that one can only combine the prayers while one is actually moving from one site to another as the Prophet was settled and was not traveling since the Prophet was staying in his tent and would come out and combine two prayers and then return to his tent. Muslim recorded this hadith in his Sahih and stated: 'He would pray the zuhr and 'asr together and the maghrib and 'isha together. One must follow this hadith as it is confirmed [to be authentic] and it is a clear statement on this rule and there is nothing which contradicts it. The permission to combine the salah is a concession for anyone who is traveling but it is by no means confined to just those times when the person is actually on the road [i.e., traveling from one place to another]. The same is the case for shortening the salah and for wiping over the socks, but it is best to delay it.'": Having the intention to combine is not a condition for combining or shortening the salah. Ibn Taimiyyah holds: "That is the position of the majority of the scholars. When the Prophet combined the salah with his companions or shortened the salah with them, he never ordered any of them to make the intention for combining or shortening the salah. In fact, when he left Medinah for Makkah, he prayed two rak'at without combining the salah, and then he prayed the zuhr prayer at 'Arafa without telling the people that he intended to pray the 'asr right afterward, next he prayed the 'asr with them and they did not have the intention to combine their prayers, and in that combination he prayed the latter salah early. When he went from Medinah, he led the people in the 'asr salah at Zhul-Halifah and he did not order them to make the intention to shorten the salah.": Concerning offering the two combined prayers right after each other, Ibn Taimiyyah writes: "The correct opinion is that it is not a necessary condition to do so under any circumstances, neither during the time of the first salah nor during the time of the latter salah. There is no such limit in the shari'ah and doing so would defeat the purpose of the concession [i.e., permission to combine the two salah]." Ash-Shaf'i says: "It is quite permissible for a person to pray the maghrib in his house with the intention of combining the prayers and then go to the mosque to pray the 'isha." A similar statement has been related from Ahmad.
Fiqh 2.117: Combining two prayers during rain
Al-Athram records in his Sunnan that Abu Salamah ibn 'Abdurrahman said: "It is a sunnah to combine the maghrib and 'isha prayers when it is raining." Al-Bukhari records that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam combined the maghrib and 'isha prayers on a rainy night.
A summary of the opinions of the different schools of fiqh on this point follows:
The Shaf'i school says that it is allowed for the resident to combine the zuhr and 'asr or the maghrib and 'isha, praying each pair in the time of the earlier salah only, given that it is raining when one begins the earlier prayer and it is still raining by the time one begins the second prayer.
According to the Maliki school, it is allowed to combine the maghrib and 'isha in the mosque at the time of the maghrib due to rain or expected rain, if there is mud and darkness along the way, or if there is a lot of mud and it prevents the people from wearing their shoes. Nevertheless, he dislikes that the zuhr and 'asr should be combined due to rain.
According to the Hanbali school, it is only allowed to combine the maghrib and 'isha in the time of the former or the latter due to snow, ice, mud, severe cold, or rain which soaks the clothes. This concession is allowed only for one who prays with a congregation in the mosque and who comes from a distance over which he could be harmed by the rain. However, for one who prays in a congregation in his house or whose path to the mosque is covered or protected, or for one whose house is right next to the mosque, it is not allowed to combine the salah.
Fiqh 2.118: Combining the two prayers due to some illness or other excuse
Ahmad, Qadi Hussain, al-Khattabi, and al-Mutawali of the Shaf'i school are of the opinion that it is allowed to combine two prayers, either during the time of the earlier or later salah, due to illness as it is a greater hardship than rain. An-Nawawi says: "This is a strong opinion based on [sound] evidence." In al-Mughni it is stated: "The illness which permits one to combine the prayers is the one which would otherwise cause hardship and more weakness [if he prayed each salah separately]."
The Hanbali school is the most accommodating as it allows one to combine the prayers, at the time of the early or later salah, for one who is ill as well as for the woman who is breast-feeding and will face hardship in cleaning her dress for every salah, for the woman who is plagued by a prolonged flow of blood, for the person who cannot control his urine, and for one who cannot purify himself or herself, and for the one who fears for his life, property, or family.
Ibn Taimiyyah says: "Among the opinions the most accommodating on this question is that of the Hanbali school which allows one to combine the prayers if he is busy (since an-Nasa'i has related something to that effect from the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam) and they also say that the cook and baker, and so forth., may also combine their prayers if they fear their wealth (i.e., their investment or what they are working on) will otherwise be ruined."
Fiqh 2.118 a: Combining two prayers due to some pressing need
Imam an-Nawawi writes in his commentary on Sahih Muslim: "The majority of the scholars are of the opinion that it is allowed for the resident to combine the prayers due to some pressing need. This is the statement of Ibn Sireen and Ashhab from the companions of Malik, and al-Khattabi records it from al-Qifal and ash-Shaf'i and from Abu Ishaq al-Maruzi, and from a number of as-hab al-ahadith, and it is the conclusion of Ibn al-Munzhir. This is supported by the statement of ibn 'Abbas: 'The Prophet combined his salah because he did not want to put his ummah to hardship, and not because of illness or any other reason."' The hadith from Ibn 'Abbas, mentioned previously, has been recorded by Imam Muslim who states: "The Messenger of Allah combined the zuhr and 'asr and then the maghrib and 'isha in Medinah without there being any danger or rain." Ibn 'Abbas was asked: "What did he desire by that action?" He replied: "He did not want any hardship for his ummah." Al-Bukhari and Muslim record from him that the Prophet prayed seven rak'at and eight rak'at, i.e., the zuhr and 'asr together and the maghrib and 'isha together, in Medinah. Muslim also records from 'Abdullah ibn Shaqiq that 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas addressed the people one day after the 'asr salah until well after the sun had set and the stars began to appear. The people said to him: "The prayer, the prayer." A man from the tribe of Taim continuously repeated: "The prayer, the prayer." Ibn 'Abbas said: "Are you teaching me the sunnah? May you have no mother." Then he said: "I saw the Messenger of Allah combine the zuhr and 'asr and the maghrib and 'isha." 'Abdullah ibn Shaqiq commented: "I felt some uneasiness in my heart about what he had said, so I went to Abu Hurairah to ask him about that, and he confirmed what Ibn 'Abbas had said."
Fiqh 2.119: Validity of combined prayers after their legal excuse ceases to exist
In al-Mughni it is stated: "If someone performs both prayers at the time of the earlier salah and then his reason for doing so ceases to exist after he has completed the salah and before the time of the next salah begins [i.e., the next salah being the one which he had just prayed during the earlier time], then what he has done is sufficient for him and he need not repeat the second salah at its proper time. Since he performed the salah in a proper manner, he is free from any extra obligation due to that action. He fulfilled his obligation during a circumstance in which he had some legal excuse, and his action is not invalidated by the fact that this excuse no longer exists. This is similar to the case of a person who performe tayammum, and after he finishes his salah, he finds water."
Fiqh 2.119 a: Prayer on a ship, train or plane
A salah on a ship, train, plane, and so on, is valid and there is no dislike for such an act as it makes life easier for the one performing it. Ibn 'Umar says: "I asked the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam about salah on a ship and he said: 'Pray standing upon them unless you fear that you will be drowned [i.e., the boat might capsize]."' This is related by ad-Daraqutni and by al-Hakim. The later grades it sahih according to the criteria of al-Bukhari and Muslim.
'Abdullah ibn Abi 'Utbah reports: "I accompanied Jabir ibn 'Abdullah and Abu Sa'id al-Khudri and Abu Hurairah on a boat, and they prayed standing in a congregation, with one of them as their imam, although they could have gone ashore [if they had so desired]." This is related by Sa'id ibn Mansur.
Fiqh 2.119 b: Some supplications for the traveler
It is preferred for the traveler to say, upon leaving his house: "In the name of Allah, the Exalted! We have trusted in Allah. There is no power or might, save with Allah. O Allah, I seek refuge in Thee from being misguided and from misguiding others, or that I stray from Your path or cause others to stray from Your path, or that I am wronged or that I do wrong to others, or that I act foolishly or have someone act foolishly with me."
Then, the person may say whatever he wishes of the supplications which have been recorded from the Prophet, sallallahu alehi wasallam. Here are some of them:
'Ali ibn Rabi'ah narrates: "'Ali was brought a riding animal. When he put his foot in the stirrup, he said: 'In the name of Allah.' Then, when he sat on it, he said: 'Praise be to Allah. Glory be to the One Who made this subservient to us for we were not able to make [it subservient] and it is to our Lord that we will return.' He then praised Allah three times and extolled His greatness three times and then said: 'Glory be to You; there is no God but Thee. I have wronged my soul, so forgive me. No one forgives sins, except You.' Then, he laughed. I said to him: 'Why do you laugh, commander of the faithful?' He replied: 'I saw the Messenger of Allah doing the same and then laughing. I asked him: "What makes you laugh, O Messenger of Allah?" He said: "The Lord is pleased with His slave who says: 'O Lord, forgive me,' and He says: 'My slave knows that no one forgives sins, save I.'" This is related by Ahmad and Ibn Hibban, and by al-Hakim who says it is sahih according to the criteria of Imam Muslim.
Al-'Azdi reports that Ibn 'Umar taught him that the Messenger of Allah would extol Allah's greatness three times while seating himself on his camel for a journey. Then he would say: "Glory be to the One who made this subservient to us for we were not able [to make it subservient]. It is to our Lord that we shall return. O Allah, we ask of Thee, in this journey of ours, righteousness and piety and to (be able to) perform such deeds that are pleasing to You. O Allah, make this journey of ours easy for us and make its length short for us. O Allah, companion on this journey and the One who looks after our family and property in our absence. O Allah, I seek refuge in Thee from the difficulty of traveling and the unhappiness in what I see and in finding that something harmful has happened when I return to my property and family."
When he would return from his journey he would add: "Returning [are we] repentant, serving and praising our Lord." This is related by Ahmad and Muslim.
Ibn 'Abbas reports that when the Prophet desired to travel, he would say: "O Allah, You are my companion in my travels and the One Who looks after my family [while I am gone]. O Allah, I seek refuge in You from unworthy travel companions and an unpleasant situation upon my return. O Allah, make the distance short for us and the travel easy for us." When he desired to return, he would say: "We are returning, [while] repenting to Allah, worshipping our Lord and praising Him." When he would enter upon his family, he would say: "We are repenting to our Lord. We hope that none of our sins would remain." This is related by Ahmad, at-Tabarani, and al-Bazzar with a sahih chain.
'Abdullah ibn Sarjas reports that, when the Prophet had to travel, he would say: "O Allah, I seek refuge in You from the difficulty of the journey, and sorrow on return, and disorder after things are set right, from the cry of the oppressed, and from seeing harm having come to our property and family."
And when he returned he would make a similar supplication, but instead of saying: "from seeing harm having come to our property and family," he would mention family first and then property. This is related by Ahmad and Muslim.
Ibn 'Umar reports that when the Prophet went out for a battle or a journey, and night came upon him, he would say: "O Earth, my Lord and your Lord is Allah. I seek refuge in Allah from your evil and the evil of what is on you and the evil of what has been created upon you and the evil of what walks upon you. I seek refuge in Allah from lions and large black snakes, and from snakes and scorpions, and from the evil or all that inhabit the land, and the evil of a father and what he has fathered." This is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud.
Khaulah bint Hakim as-Sulimiyah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever stops at a stopping place should say: 'I seek refuge by the perfected word of Allah. the Exalted, from the evil of what has been created,' then nothing will harm him until he leaves that stopping place." This is related by the group, save al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud.
'Ata ibn abi Marwan states from his father that Ka'b took an oath by the One who opened up the sea for Moses that Suhaib related to him that whenever the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alehi wasallam saw a city which he wished to enter, he would say: "O Allah, Lord of the seven heavens and what they shade, Lord of the seven earths and what they carry, Lord of the satans and those that they misguide, Lord of the winds and what they blow away, I ask of You for the good of this city and the good of its inhabitants and the good of what is in it. I seek refuge in You from its evil and the evil of its inhabitants and the evil of what is in it." This is related by an-Nasa'i, ibn Hibban, and al-Hakim who calls it sahih.
Ibn 'Umar says: "We would travel with the Messenger of Allah, and when he would see the city that he wished to enter, he would say: 'O Allah, give us blessings from what is in it,' three times. And, 'Allah, give us provisions from its harvest and make us beloved to its inhabitants and make the pious people of its inhabitants beloved to us." This is related by at-Tabarani in al-Ausat with a good chain.
'Aishah says: "Whenever the Messenger of Allah came to a place that he wished to enter he would say: 'O Allah, I ask of you of the good of this place and the good of what you have collected therein. O Allah, grant us provisions from its harvest and protect us from its diseases. Make us beloved to its inhabitants and make the pious people of its inhabitants beloved to us.' This is related by ibn as-Sani.
Abu Hurairah reports that when the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam was on a journey and daybreak approached he would say: "Let one listen and witness the praise of Allah and His good favor toward us. Our Lord, accompany us and show us favour [as we] seek refuge in Allah from the hell-fire." This is related by Muslim.
Fiqh 2.125: The virtues of Jumu'ah, Friday prayer
Friday (Jumu'ah) is the best day of the week.
Abu Hurairah reports that the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "The best day on which the sun rises is Friday. [On Friday] Adam was created and on that day he entered paradise and on that day he was expelled from paradise. And the Hour will come to pass on Friday." This is related by Muslim, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, and at-Tirmizhi who calls it sahih.
Abu Lubanah al-Badri relates that the Prophet said: "The most prominent of the days [lit. the leader of the days] is the day of Jumu'ah and the most honored in Allah's sight, and it is more honored in Allah's sight than the day of breaking the fast or the day of sacrifice. It has five significant merits: Allah created Adam on this day; on this day Allah sent Adam down to the earth; on this day, Allah caused Adam to die; on this day, there is a time during which if anyone asks anything of Allah it will be granted to him unless he asks for something which is forbidden; and on this day, the Hour will be established. There are no angels close to Allah or sky or earth or wind or mountain or sea who are not worried concerning the day of Jumu'ah." This is related by Ahmad and Ibn Majah. Al-Iraqi says its chain is hasan.
Fiqh 2.125 a: Supplications during Friday
One should do one's best to make supplications during the last moments (or hours) of Jumu'ah.
'Abdullah ibn Salam relates: "I said, and the Messenger of Allah was sitting: 'We find in the Book of Allah that on Friday there is an 'hour' in which, if a believing slave prays to Allah for something, his prayer is (indeed) accepted and he is granted what ever he prays for.' The Messenger of Allah pointed toward me and said: 'Or part of an hour.' I said: 'You have spoken the truth: or part of an hour.' I asked: 'What hour is it?' He replied: 'The last hour of the day.' I remarked: 'That is not a time of salah?' He responded: 'Certainly [it is]; if a believing slave offers salah and then sits, he will not be sitting, save due to the salah, and he will be in salah."' This is related by Ibn Majah.
Abu Sa'id and Abu Hurairah report that the Messenger of Allah said: "On Jumu'ah there is a time that if a believing slave asks Allah during it for some good, [Allah will definitely] give it to him, and that time is after the 'asr salah." This is related by Ahmad. Al-'Iraqi calls it sahih.
Jabir reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "The day of Jumu'ah has twelve hours, and during one of the hours, you will not find a Muslim slave [of Allah] asking Allah for something, but that He will give it to him. Seek it in the last hour after the 'Asr salah." This is related by anNasa'i, Abu Dawud, and by al-Hakim in al-Mustadrak, and he calls it sahih according to Muslim's criteria. Ibn Hajar says that its chain is hasan.
Abu Salamah ibn 'Abdurrahman reports that some companions of the Prophet gathered and mentioned the "hour on Jumu'ah." They left and did not differ on the fact that it is the last hour of Jumu'ah. This is related by Sa'id ibn Mansur in his Sunan and al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar calls it sahih.
Ahmad ibn Hanbal says: "Most of the hadith concerning the hour in which the supplication is always responded to state the hour to be after the 'asr prayer, and some state it to be after the sun passes the meridian."
There is a hadith recorded by Muslim and Abu Dawud which states that Abu Musa heard the Messenger of Allah say concerning the special hour on Jumu'ah: "It is between the time that the imam sits [i.e., upon the pulpit] and the time that the salah is completed." All the same, this particular hadith is defective because its chain is broken and it is mudtarib.
Fiqh 2.126: Making many prayers and salutations upon the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam during the night and the day of Jumu'ah
Aus ibn Aus reports that the Prophet said: "The most virtuous of your days is Jumu'ah. On that day, Adam was created and on that day he died, (on that day) the horn will be blown and the people will be dumbfounded! Increase your prayers upon me as your prayers upon me will be presented to me." The people said: "O Messenger of Allah, how will our prayers be presented to you when you have passed away?" He said: "Allah has prohibited the earth from eating the bodies of the Prophets." This is related by the five, except for at-Tirmizhi.
Ibn al-Qayyim says: "It is preferred to pray for (Allah's blessings on the Prophet during the day and night of Jumu'ah as the Prophet said: 'Make many prayers upon me during the day of Friday and the night of Friday.' The Messenger of Allah is the leader of mankind, and Jumu'ah is the best of the days of the week. Prayers upon him during that day are a privilege [he deserves] which belongs to no other. This act also has another wisdom to it and that is that all of the good that has passed onto this [Muslim] ummah, in this life and the hereafter, has passed through him
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