Before the advent of the printing press, each copy of the Qur'an were calligraphered ( written by hand), and for this purpose, there always has been, in every age, a large group of calligraphers whose sole purpose in life was (and still is) nothing else except the calligraphy of the Qur'an. The calligraphy place an important place in Muslim art and amount to hard work put in by Muslims in writing the words of the Qur'an in ever better styles. they have demonstrated their intense emotional involvement with this great Book has a long and interesting history of its own and this a entirely a separate subject itself.
There many style of writing, but two are the most popular Mushaf (style of writing)
In addition to lithography, and photocomposition, lately word processors may have be used to print the of Holy Quran. However, to date the best quality of Holy Quran are always initially hand written by the master calligrapher and then photograph and printed.
There are several Quranic style of writing however, two of them widely used. Both are different in style as well as some slight differences in sign convention
The first style is most popular in the Indian Sub-Continent (India, Pakistan Bangladesh)
The second style is most popular in the middle east and African countries
The second style is most popular among the non-Arab because the Arabic letters are large and bold rounded with word clearly separated the vowels signs accurately placed over or under the letters. This is very essential because of overwhelming majority of this group of Muslims hardly have any background in Arabic language. Without the diacritical marks place clearly over and under the letters overwhelming majority would not be able to read the Holy Qur'an properly.
The script of Holy qur'an is printed according to the Riwaayah (Qirra'ah) (recital) and Ie-raab (diacritcial marks including markings, signs and pointers for proper pronunciation) of Huf's ibn Soelaymaan ibn Al-Mugierah Al Asaiy Al Koefiy.
Huf's ibn Soelayman who learned the Holy Qur'an from the Imam (expert) of Qiraa'ah (recital) Aa'siem ibn Abien Nujood Al Koefiy At Taabi-iy who learned from Abou Abdour Rah-maan Abdoellah ibn Habeeb As Soelamiy who learned from Sayyidina Uttman ibn Affaan (radhiAllaho anhu) Sayyidina Aliy ibn Abiy Taalieb (radhiAllaho anhu), Sayyidina Abdoellah ibn Mus-oud (radhiAllaho anhu), Sayyidna Zaid ibn Thaabiet (radhiAllaho anhu) and Sayyidan Oebay ibn Ka-b (radhiAllaho anhu) and they all learned from the Holy Prophet (sallallaho alehey wasalam).
The script of Holy Qur'aan is according to that which is related by Imam of Rusm (script) from the Qur'an of Sayydina Uttman ibn Afaan, which he had send to Ba'srah Kufa (Iraq) Shaam (Syria) Makkah. The Qur'an that was kept for the people of Madina, the Qur'an that he (Uthman) for his own recital and also from those Qur'ans that were transcribed . There is no doubt that every word of the Holy Qur'an ( exception of dots and diacritical marks and pointers) are accordance with the authorized copies of Sayydina Uttman ibn Affan (radhiAllaho anhu).
Where the Iman of Rusm (script) have differed in the style of script of some words, the apparent overwhelming and preferred script is followed. In additions this also by considering the recital method of the expert Qauriy (reciters) whose recital method is printed .... However, the simplicity of script, including the clarity of Tushkee (Ie-raab i.e. diacritcal pointer and marking guides) have been used.... for the easy and correct rectial by the non-Arab (Ajumiy) reader.
Both Mushaf, style of writing, also slightly differ in the convention of diacritical marks. This should be kept in our mind that the Word of Allah Holy Qur'an was revealed to the Prophet (s.a.w.) in speech. In past it , and still is, was common tradition among the Muslim community to memorize the entire or part of Qur'an. One of main reason, to preserve the Holy Qur'an in writing and later development of dots, diacritical marks and pointers, was so that Holy Qur'an may be accessible to Non-Arabs Muslims living far from the Arabic peninsula. The diacritical system later served tremendously to preserve its correct pronunciation with minimum of effort to the Arab or non-Arab alike.
It is generally believed that Sayyidna 'Uthman (radhiAllaho anhu) had accomplished the preparation of five copies, but Abu Hatim Sijistani says that a total of seven copies were prepared. Out of these one was sent to Makkah al-Mukarramah, one to Syria, one to Yaman, one to Bahrain, one to Basrah and one to Kufah, and one was preserved in Madinah al-Tayyibah.
he ummah reached a consensus on the rule that it is not permissible to write the text of the noble Qur'an using any method other than the 'Uthmani Script. Consequently, all copies of the Qur'an were, later on, written in accordance with this method
Upto this time, there existed only one single copy of the noble Qur'an -- complete, authentically standard and collectively attested by the whole ummah. These distinguished persons prepared more than one copy of this newly organized Mushaf (copy of the Qur'an).