Incoherence of Philosophers
By Imam Al-Ghazali
Translation : Sabih Ahmad Kamali
Edited By Prof. Ehsan Ashraf
Paperback - 270 Pages (Year: 2007)
ISBN : 8174355553
Publisher : Adam Publishers, India
About The Book
Al-Ghazali’s relationship with philosophy is subtle and complicated. The philosophy represented by AL-FARABI and IBN SINA (Avicenna) is, for al-Ghazali, not simply an object of criticism but also an important component of his own learning.
Imam Ghazali studied philosophy intensively while in Baghdad, composing Maqasid al falasifa (The Intentions of the Philosophers), and then criticizing it in his Tahafut al falasifa (Incoherence of Philosophers).
This book was considered a turning point in Islamic history, it is generally thought that from this point onwards philosophy in the Islamic world went on the decline after receiving such a crushing blow from religion in the form of al-Ghazali's writings.
This translation is well written and presented in English that is fairly easy to understand
Table of Contents
- Translator’s Preface
- Refutation of the philosophers belief in the Eternity of the World
- Refutation of their belief in the everlasting nature of the world, Time and motion
- Of their dishonest in saying that God is the agent and the maker of the world which is His action or product: and the Explanation of the fact that these words have only a metaphorical, Not real, significance to them
- To show their inability to prove the existence of the creator Of the world
- Of their inability to prove by rational arguments that God is One, and that it not possible to suppose two necessary Beings each of which is uncaused
- Refutation of their denial of the Divine Attributes
- Refutation of their thesis that is impossible that something Should share a genus with God, being separated from Him By differentia; and that the intellectual division into genus And differentia is inapplicable to Him
- Refutation of their thesis that God’s is simple being - i.e., it Is pure being, without a quiddity or essence to which Existence would be related - and that necessary existence is To Him what quiddity is to any other being
- Of their inability to prove by rational arguments that God is Not body
- Of their inability to prove by rational arguments that there Is a cause or creator of the world
- Refutation of those philosophers who hold that God knows The Other, and that He knows the species and genera in a Universal manner
- To show their inability to prove that God knows Himself Either
- Refutation of their doctrine that God (May He be exalted Above what they say) does not know the particulars which Are divisible in accordance with the division of time into ‘will be,’ ‘was,’ and ‘is’
- To show their inability to prove that the heaven is living,And obeys God through its rotatory motion
- Refutation of what they consider to be the purpose which Moves the heaven
- Refutation of their theory that the souls of the heavens are Aware of all particulars, which originate in the world
- Refutation of their belief in the impossibility of a departure From the natural course of events
- Of their inability to give a rational demonstration of their Theory that the human soul is a spiritual substance which Exists in itself; is not space-filling; is not body, or impressed upon body; and is neither connected nor Disconnected with body - as God is neither inside the world Nor outside it, or as the angels are
- Refutation of their thesis that, having come into being, the Human souls cannot be destroyed; and that their everlasting Nature makes it impossible for us to conceive other Destruction
- Refutation of their denial of the resurrection of bodies
About Imam Ghazali
Abu Hamid Muhammad, famous in the world of learning as al-Ghazali was born in 450 AH (1058 A.D) in Persia. He graduated from the Nizamia Madressa at Nishapur, with distinction.a very famous educational institution in Nishapur. Later he was appointed as a teacher at the Nizamia College in Baghdad, where he proved very successful in imparting knowledge to the scholars under his care. This valuable gift of sustaining interest of his pupils and passing on his knowledge to them made him so famous that students from all parts of the country flocked to study under him.
Imam al-Ghazali was fondly referred to as the "Hujjat-ul-lslam", Proof of Islam, He is honoured as a scholar and a saint by learned men all over the world.
Al-Ghazali is generally acclaimed as the most influential thinker of the Classical period of Islam, in his autobiography The Deliverance from Error, the Imam describes his education and his intellectual crisis, which left him so paralysed by doubt that he he gave up his academic pursuits and worldly interests and became a wandering ascetic. This was a process (period) of mystical transformation. Later, he resumed his teaching duties, but again left these. An era of solitary life, devoted to contemplation and writing then ensued, which led to the authorship of a number of everlasting books (Many of which have been translated in English).
Imam al-Ghazali's life was spent in self-sacrificing service of God and his fellowmen. He left behind him a fine example for all men to follow. He died in 505 AH/
To read more about Imam Al-Ghazali, please click here.
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