The Travels of IBN BATTUTA Tr & Selected By HAR Gibb
[#0348 2C1 PB 398pp, Goodword Books, Rihla The Epic Journey as dictated to Ibn Juzayy]

The Travels of  IBN BATTUTA  Tr & Selected By HAR Gibb

The Travels of IBN BATTUTA
Translated and Selected By H. A. R. Gibb.
Paperback 398 Pages
Goodword Books
ISBN : 8187570563

The most well known traveller of Classical times was undoubtedly Abu `Abdallah ibn Battuta. In the course of about 30 years, he travelled across the eastern hemisphere for a total distance of roughly 116,800 km and he visited regions which today comprise 44 modern countries. When his epic journeys were complete, his adventures were dedicated to a young scholar of literature named Ibn Juzayy and recorded in a book titled the Rihla. This is a descriptive work that does not attempt to present his itinerary in a rigidly detailed fashion, so some of the dates of his travels remain unclear.

No other 14th Century (8th Century Hijra) traveller is known to have journeyed so extensively. In 30 years (from 1325), Ibn Batuta travelled overland in North Africa and Syria to make the pilgrimage to Makkah Afterward he visited Persia, Mesopotamia, and Asia Minor. He made a journey by way of Samarkand to India, where he resided for almost eight years at the court of the sultan of Delhi, who sent him to China as one of his ambassadors. Ibn Batuta visited the Maldives, the Malabar coast, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and Sumatra. He returned c. 1350 to Tangier. Later he went to Spain, then to Morocco, and from here he crossed the Sahara to visit Timbuktu and the River Niger. During his 29 years of travel, he covered 120,000 km. A great insight of the days when Islam was a strong living tradition far spread around the world.

Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta, also known as Shams ad - Din, was born at Tangier, Morocco, in the year 1304 C.E. (703 Hijra) was born in 1304 CE to a family of Faqih (Islamic legal scholars) in Tangier, Morocco. After spending his youth studying law, he left home in 1325 to undertake the pilgrimage, known as the hajj, to the holy city of Mecca in Arabia. Along the way he visited North Africa, Egypt, Palestine, and Syria before arriving at his destination. With the completion of this, his first hajj, in 1326, Ibn Battuta began a tour of Iraq and Persia. After returning to Mecca in either 1328 or 1330, he voyaged by sea down the eastern coast of Africa to modern-day Tanzania. On his return trip, he sailed to Oman and the Persian Gulf and returned overland across central Arabia to Mecca. Around 1330 or 1332, he decided to set out for India in order to seek employment with the government of the Islamic Sultanate of Delhi. But instead of travelling by ship, he journeyed north through Egypt and Syria, and then to Asia Minor. He then crossed the Black Sea and travelled to West Central Asia, and after spending some time there, made an abrupt detour west to visit Constantinople. After returning to West Central Asia, he finally proceeded to India, venturing through Transoxiana, Khurasan, and Afghanistan along the way. He finally reached the Indus River in either 1333 or 1335.

Although the exploits of Marco Polo remain more well known to western readers, Ibn Battuta far outdid Polo in terms of the number of places that he visited and reported on. But the contrast between the two is greater than the mere distances that each covered. Marco Polo was essentially exploring regions that were little-known to his fellow Europeans, while Ibn Battuta never strayed far from the world of Islamic culture; a world in which he could always find hospitality and companionship with individuals sharing sensibilities similar to his own. He was a member of the literate elite, a class that could be found throughout the Islamic world. His travels illustrate the remarkable extent of Islamic expansion throughout the Old World, and they display the possibilities for long-distance travel that existed in the fourteenth century.

Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta, . His travels lasted for about thirty years, after which he returned to Fez, Morocco at the court of Sultan Abu 'Inan and dictated accounts of his journeys to Ibn Juzay. These are known as the famous Travels (Rihala) of Ibn Battuta. He died at Fez in 1369 C.E.

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Sound knowledge and conclusive proofs have established that everything in the universe, whether it be high or low, articulate or mute, is interconnected. The universe is constructed of harmoniously interrelated and interacting forces. If a single atom should deviate a hairs breadth from its designated course, for which it was created, the order of the world would be upset, its precise interconnectedness disrupted, and the heavens would collapse upon the earth. The worlds have been and shall remain joined and bound in mutual attraction, performing the functions they were created for, in the most perfect, ordered, and precise wayuntil the appointed time.
Who then is the creator of all this?